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chinese art and literature

Weibo - Art and Literature. Weibo Source by Kaowraowjubb. Chinese art. DeviantArt. Amazing Science Experiments Anime Galaxy Arte Legal Hourglass Anime Scenery Illustration Cute Wallpapers Arte Digital Cool Art. DeviantArt is the world's largest online social community for artists and art enthusiasts, allowing people to connect through the. Chinese art, the painting, calligraphy, architecture, pottery, sculpture, bronzes, jade carving, and other fine or decorative art forms produced in China over the centuries. The following article treats the general characteristics of Chinese art as a whole. For a detailed discussion of each of the. Art and Literature in Ancient China. Chinese literature has a long and prolific continuous history, in part because of the development of printmaking during the Song dynasty. Before that, manuscripts of the Classics and religious texts (mainly Confucian, Taoist, and Buddhist) were manually written by ink brush (previously scratching shells) and.


History of Chinese Literature, China Literature in Ancient Time


Chinese literaturethe body of works written in Chinese, including lyric poetryhistorical and didactic writing, dramaand various forms of fiction. Chinese literature is one of the major literary heritages of the world, with an uninterrupted history of more than 3, years, dating back at least to the 14th century bce. Since the Chinese graphs were inherently nonphonetic, they were at best unsatisfactory tools for the transcription of a non-Chinese language, and attempts at creating a new chinese art and literature written language for empire building proved unsuccessful on three separate occasions.

The result was that after a period of alien domination, the conquerors were culturally assimilated except the Mongols, who retreated en masse to their original homeland after the collapse of the Yuan [or Mongol] dynasty in Through cultural contacts, Chinese literature has profoundly influenced the literary traditions of other Asian countries, particularly Korea, Japan, and Vietnam.

Not only was the Chinese script adopted for the written language in these countries, but some writers adopted the Chinese language as their chief literary medium, at least before the 20th century. The graphic nature of the written aspect of the Chinese language has produced a number of noteworthy effects upon Chinese literature and its diffusion: 1 Chinese literature, especially poetryis recorded in handwriting or in print and purports to make an aesthetic appeal to the reader that is visual as well as aural.

Scrolls of calligraphic renderings of poems and prose selections have continued to be hung alongside paintings in the homes of the common people as well as the elite, chinese art and literature, converting these literary gems into something to be enjoyed in everyday living.

Different in function from recording words in an alphabetic—phonetic language, the graphs are not primarily indicators of sounds and can therefore be pronounced in variant ways to accommodate geographical diversities in speech and historical phonological changes without damage to the meaning of the written page. As a result, chinese art and literature, the major dialects in China never developed into separate written languages as did the Romance languagesand, although the reader of a Confucian Classic in southern China might not understand the everyday speech of someone from the far north, Chinese literature has continued to be the common asset of the whole Han Chinese people.

By the same token, the graphs of China could be utilized by speakers of other languages as their literary mediums. The pronunciation of the Chinese graphs has also influenced the development of Chinese literature. The fact that each graph had a monophonic pronunciation in a given context created a large number of homonyms, which led to misunderstanding and confusion when spoken or read aloud without the aid of the graphs.

One corrective was the introduction of tones or pitches in pronunciation. As a result, metre in Chinese prosody is not concerned with the combination of syllabic stresses, as in English, but with those of syllabic tones, chinese art and literature, which produce a different but chinese art and literature pleasing cadence.

This tonal feature of the Chinese language has brought about an intimate relationship between poetry and music in China. All major types of Chinese poetry were originally sung to the accompaniment of music. Even chinese art and literature the musical scores were lost, the poems were, as they still are, more often chanted—in order to approximate singing—than merely read.

Chinese poetry, besides depending on end rhyme and tonal metre for its cadence, is characterized by its compactness and brevity. There are no epics of either folk or literary variety and hardly any narrative or descriptive poems that are long by the standards of world literature. Stressing the lyricalas has often been pointed out, the Chinese chinese art and literature refrains from being exhaustive, marking instead the heights of his ecstasies and inspiration or the depths of sorrow and sympathy, chinese art and literature.

Generally, pronouns and conjunctions are omitted, and one or two words often allude to highly complex thoughts or situations.

This explains why many poems have been differently interpreted chinese art and literature learned commentators and competent translators, chinese art and literature.

The line of demarcation between prose and poetry is much less distinctly drawn in Chinese literature than in other national literatures. This is clearly reflected in three genres.

The fufor example, is on the borderline between poetry and prose, containing elements of both. It uses rhyme and metre and not infrequently also antithetic structure, but, despite occasional flights into the realm of the poetic, it retains the features of prose without being necessarily prosaic.

This accounts for the variety of labels given to the fu in English by writers on Chinese literature—poetic prose, rhyme prose, prose poemrhapsody, and prose poetry. Despite the polyphonic effect thus produced, which approximates that of poetry, it has often been made the vehicle of proselike exposition and argumentation.

Now generally regarded as unworthy of classification as literature, for centuries from to it dominated the field of Chinese writing as the principal yardstick in grading candidates in the official civil-service examinations. It exploited antithetical construction and contrasting tonal patterns to the limit by requiring pairs of columns consisting of long paragraphs, one responding to the other, word for word, phrase for phrase, sentence for sentence. Chinese prose writing has been diverted into two streams, separated at least for the last 1, years by a gap much wider than the one between folk songs and so-called literary poems.

Classical, or literary, prose guwenor wenyan aims at the standards and styles set by ancient writers and their distinguished followers of subsequent ages, with the Confucian Classics and the early philosophers as supreme models. While the styles may vary with individual writers, the language is always far removed from their spoken tongues. Sanctioned by official requirement for the competitive examinations and dignified by traditional respect for the cultural accomplishments of past ages, this medium became the linguistic tool of practically all Chinese prose writers.

Vernacular prose baihuain contrast, consists of writings in the living tongue, the everyday language of the authors. Traditionally considered inferior, the medium was piously avoided for creative writing until it was adopted by novelists and playwrights from the 13th century on. The oldest specimens of Chinese writing extant are inscriptions on bones and tortoise shells dating back to the last three centuries of the Shang dynasty 18th—12th centuries bce and recording divinations performed at the royal capital.

These inscriptions, like those engraved on ceremonial bronze vessels toward the end of the Shang period, are usually brief and factual and cannot be considered literature, chinese art and literature. Nonetheless, they are significant in that their sizable vocabulary about 3, chinese art and literature, of which nearly 2, have been reliably deciphered has proved to be the direct ancestor of the modern Chinese script.

Moreover, the syntactical structure of the language bears a striking resemblance to later usages. Chinese literature. Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents.

Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Introduction General characteristics Origins: c. Written By: William H. Nienhauser Hellmut Wilhelm Howard C. Goldblatt Tien-yi Li. See Article History. General characteristics Through cultural contacts, Chinese literature has profoundly influenced the literary traditions of other Asian countries, particularly Korea, Japan, and Vietnam. Start your free trial today for unlimited access to Britannica.

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Chinese art - Wikipedia

 

chinese art and literature

 

Chinese art, the painting, calligraphy, architecture, pottery, sculpture, bronzes, jade carving, and other fine or decorative art forms produced in China over the centuries. The following article treats the general characteristics of Chinese art as a whole. For a detailed discussion of each of the. Chinese literature, the body of works written in Chinese, including lyric poetry, historical and didactic writing, drama, and various forms of fiction. Chinese literature is one of the major literary heritages of the world, with an uninterrupted history of more than 3, years, dating back at. Chinese literature Earliest literary texts date from the Zhou dynasty (c– bc). This period produced the canonical writings of Confucianism: the Five Classics, including the first poetry anthology Shih ching (Classic of Odes); and the Four Books, containing doctrinal writings, such as The Book of kovntikis.cfionally attributed to Confucius, the Shih ching is probably earlier still.